Environmental Initiatives

Media Inquiries

If you are a journalist and would like additional information, please visit the Media Contacts page.

Media Contacts

Subscribe to News Feeds

Pew offers news delivered to your desktop via RSS feed. Subscribing is easy. To learn more or get started, follow the link below.

Subscribe to News Feeds

For The Record

When Pew’s work is questioned or criticized we respond through letters to the editor or op-eds.

Read Pew's Responses

CITES 2013: Year of the Shark, Media Guide

Other Resource

Contacts:

Jo Benn, +1 202.247.5823, jbenn@pewtrusts.org
Rachel Brittin, 202.540.6312, rbrittin@pewtrusts.org

Additional Resources:

Media Guide to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

The 16th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (CoP) will be held from March 3–14, 2013, in Bangkok, Thailand. CITES is widely recognized as one of the most effective and best-enforced international conservation agreements. It offers protection to more than 30,000 species around the globe and has been instrumental in preventing the extinction of numerous plants and animals.

The international trade of wild animals and plants, including fish and other marine life, is a multibillion-dollar business.

Overexploitation for international trade, in combination with habitat loss, habitat degradation, climate change, and other pressures, can threaten populations with significant depletion or, worst-case, extinction.

It is crucial that any international trade in plants, animals, and their products be managed in a sustainable and legal way. The Convention was constructed for this purpose.

CITES, an international treaty among 177 governments, entered into force in 1975.

 CITES Meetings: Conference of the Parties

The 177 countries that are members of CITES are also known as “Parties.” They join voluntarily and are legally bound to implement the convention once they have become a member.

What Parties agree to do under CITES is not a substitute for their domestic laws and enforcement, or efforts under other treaties and agreements, including regional fisheries management organizations; rather, they are complementary.

Oceanic Whitetip SharkCITES meets every two to three years at the Conference of the Parties (CoP) to: 

  • Discuss proposals to amend Appendix I or II by adding, transferring, or removing species. 
  • Review implementation to understand progress on the species listed and discuss enforcement and compliance issues. 
  • Determine a budget for the Convention. 
  • Discuss any relevant reports on emerging threats or global trends that are causing the decline of species, such as a targeted poaching epidemic.

Each CITES Party sends a delegation to the CoP to discuss issues and vote on proposals and resolutions guiding the implementation of the treaty. Each Party has one vote, and a two-thirds majority of those voting is needed for a proposal to be adopted. Certain groups can attend the meeting to observe and participate in discussions, working groups, and committees but they do not have a vote. These, include:

  • Intergovernmental organizations, such as representatives from other international conventions and treaties that cooperate with CITES, for example, the Convention on Biological Diversity. 
  • International and national nongovernmental organizations, including conservation organizations, universities, and trade representatives. 
  • Representatives from countries that are not CITES Parties but wish to observe the proceedings.

So How Does CITES Work?

CITES Appendices: There are three CITES Appendices that provide varying degrees of protection for the species listed in the convention; enforcement is usually by national customs officials or police, and all Parties are required by the treaty to adopt legislation implementing CITES.

Appendix I: Species included in Appendix I are threatened with extinction, and international commercial trade in these species or their parts is prohibited. Trade for noncommercial purposes is allowed only in exceptional cases. For example, all seven species of marine turtles are listed on Appendix I in order to help reduce the severe impact that trade has had on their populations. About 600 animal species and 300 plant species are in Appendix I.

Appendix II: Species included on Appendix II are not yet threatened with extinction but could go in that direction if populations decline further and trade continues at an unsustainable rate. Appendix II still allows international trade, but it is regulated, which can give depleted species a chance to recover by ensuring through a rigorous permitting system that only sustainable and legal trade is allowed.

For example, only three sharks have global protections through CITES: great white, basking, and whale sharks. Countries agreed that these species would be listed on Appendix II because these shark populations were in decline. About 4,500 animal species and almost 30,000 plant species are included in CITES Appendix II.

Appendix III: This appendix includes species, listed by individual countries that regulate trade in them and need the assistance of the global community to prevent unsustainable or illegal exploitation, but do not involve determinations of sustainability. It requires that all countries exporting a species on Appendix III ensure that the species was obtained legally. About 270 animal species and 30 plant species are listed on Appendix III, including the walrus (listed by Canada) and red and pink corals (China).

2013: Will This Be the Year of the Shark?

The Pew Environment Group is advocating for the adoption of three shark proposals and one manta ray proposal, to include these species on Appendix II at CoP 16 (porbeagle, oceanic whitetip, and hammerhead sharks (scalloped, great, and smooth), and manta rays).

Fishing has drastically depleted shark and ray populations over the past 60 years. Of the shark and ray species assessed by scientists for the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 30 per cent are threatened or near-threatened with extinction. Up to 73 million sharks are killed every year to support the international shark fin trade, with most of the fins ending up in shark fin soup.

Sharks and rays are slow to mature and have few offspring, making them extremely vulnerable to overfishing. Their life cycles are more similar to some mammals, such as lions and elephants, than to most fish, and it can take many years for populations to rebound once they are depleted. Overfishing by highly efficient modern fleets, illegal fishing, and bycatch (being caught in fishing gear but not as a legal/target species) is causing a drastic decline in shark populations wherever they are found, with international protection measures still patchy and piecemeal.

The successful conservation and management of sharks requires a wide range of measures, because sharks are highly migratory species that are caught both within national jurisdictions and on the high seas, and then traded in the international market. 

Hammerhead SharkScalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini)

These sharks are found along the coastlines in warm, temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. A proposal to include the species in Appendix II has been submitted by Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, the 27 member States of the European Union, Honduras, and Mexico along with the smooth and great hammerhead species because their fins look similar when traded.

  • Scalloped hammerheads are found along coastlines in warm, temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans.
  • Scientists have estimated that 1.3 million to 2.7 million scalloped and smooth hammerheads are killed annually for the fin trade.

Learn more about the scalloped hammerhead shark.



Porbeagle SharkPorbeagle shark (Lamna nasus)

A coastal shark (and smaller cousin of the great white shark) that ranges into international waters. It is found in cold-temperate waters worldwide. A proposal to include the species in Appendix II has been submitted by Brazil, Comoros, Croatia, Egypt and the 27 member States of the European Union.

  • Porbeagles, closely related to the great white shark, range along coasts and into international waters. They are found in cold-temperate waters of the north Atlantic and southern hemisphere.
  • Porbeagle meat is considered high quality, particularly in Europe, notably France, Spain and Italy. Porbeagle fins are also in demand for shark fin soup in Asia.

Learn more about the porbeagle shark.



Oceanic Whitetip SharkOceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus)

The oceanic whitetip is an open-ocean species with a distinctive white tip on its dorsal fin. A proposal to include the species in Appendix II has been submitted by Brazil, Colombia, and the United States.

  • Although the oceanic whitetip is one of the most widespread shark species, found in tropical and temperate seas throughout the world, it is also one of the most threatened.
  • Scientists have estimated that 250,000 to 1.3 million oceanic whitetip sharks are killed globally per year for the fin trade.

Learn more about the oceanic whitetip shark.



Manta RayManta ray (Genus Manta)

The oceanic manta ray (Manta birostris) is found around the world in tropical and subtropical waters; the reef manta (M. alfredi) is found in tropical and temperate waters. A proposal to include the genus in Appendix II has been submitted by Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador.

  • The oceanic manta ray (Manta birostris) is found around the world in tropical and temperate waters; the reef manta (M. alfredi) is found in tropical and subtropical waters of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
  • It is estimated that gill plates from more than 4,000 manta rays are traded annually for use in Asia in a purported health tonic.

Learn more about the manta ray.

CITES 2013

Resource File: CITES FactSheet Media Guide (PDF)

 

Related News and Resources

  • Sea Life in New South Wales at Risk

    • Other Resource
    • Apr 11, 2014
    A controversial plan by the New South Wales government to allow recreational fishing in marine sanctuary areas could undermine decades of progress that protected the state’s most important underwater areas and unique species, and provided well-documented economic benefits.

    More

  • Pew Comments on Offshore Angler Permit Proposal

    • Other Resource
    • Apr 10, 2014
    On behalf of The Pew Charitable Trusts, Chad W. Hanson, Officer of the U.S. Oceans Southeast, submitted comments to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission regarding the proposed Gulf Offshore Recreational Fishing Permit (offshore permit).

    More

  • Pew Praises Ratification of Treaty to Fight Illegal Fishing Worldwide

    • Press Release
    • Apr 03, 2014
    The United States Senate on April 3 took a strong stand in the global fight against illegal fishing by ratifying a treaty that will prevent illegally caught fish from entering the market through ports around the world. The treaty, called the Port State Measures Agreement, or PSMA, also would empower port officials to prohibit foreign vessels that are suspected of illegal activity from receiving port services and access. By cutting off market access for illegally caught fish, the treaty will erode the profit incentive that drives the activity.

    More

  • Protecting the High Seas From Peril

    • Other Resource
    • Apr 01, 2014
    All the activity in the open ocean raises questions about who is monitoring and managing the ocean’s long-term health. As of now, the job is vacant, which is why delegates from around the world are at the United Nations in New York City this week.

    More

  • Climate Change Taking Toll on the Ocean

    • Other Resource
    • Mar 31, 2014
    A United Nations panel released its latest assessment of the impact of climate change on the world’s environment, focusing on issues such as food supply and economic security.

    More

  • EU Bans Fish Imports from 3 Countries

    • Press Release
    • Mar 24, 2014
    Today the Environmental Justice Foundation, Oceana, The Pew Charitable Trusts, and WWF welcome a decision by the European Union Fisheries Council, comprising all 28 fisheries ministers, to ban the importation of fish from Belize, Cambodia, and Guinea for their failure to cooperate in fighting illegal, unreported, and unregulated, or IUU, fishing.

    More

  • Exxon Valdez Spill, 25 Years Later

    • Other Resource
    • Mar 21, 2014
    Just before midnight March 24, 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez struck Bligh Reef in Alaska, causing the largest oil spill in U.S. history to that point. In the weeks that followed, a shocked world watched as the tanker spewed approximately 11 million gallons of oil into the formerly pristine and delicate Prince William Sound.

    More

  • Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management

    • Fact Sheet
    • Mar 20, 2014
    Ensuring the long-term health of important marine species will depend upon our ability to understand and account for the interactions among those species, their environment, and the people who rely upon them for food, commerce, and sport.

    More

  • Protecting New England's Marine Ecosystem: Habitat at Risk

    • Other Resource
    • Mar 12, 2014
    Some areas of New England’s waters have been closed to various types of fishing gear for decades in order to encourage the return of healthy populations of important groundfish (such as cod, haddock, and flounder), but the region does not have a plan for habitat management, as required by federal law.

    More

  • Pew le otorga al científico Hoyt Peckham la beca de investigación 2014 en conservación de recursos marinos

    • Press Release
    • Mar 12, 2014
    El Dr. Hoyt Peckham, un pionero en la incentivación de la pesca artesanal para promover el manejo de los recursos marinos con sede en La Paz, México, ha recibido una beca de investigación Pew 2014 en la conservación de dichos recursos marinos para ampliar su trabajo en la incentivación de la pesca sostenible a lo largo de la costa del noroeste de México a otras comunidades de la región y a nivel mundial. Peckham está trabajando con los pescadores locales y sus cooperativas para restablecer el valor de sus pesquerías, reforzando sus prácticas de sostenibilidad mediante el aumento de la demanda de sus mariscos y sus pescados.

    More

  • On the Front Lines: Pew Names 5 New Marine Conservation Fellows for 2014

    • Other Resource
    • Mar 12, 2014
    Five distinguished scientists and conservationists based in Malaysia, Chile, Mexico, and the United States are this year’s recipients of the Pew fellowship in marine conservation.

    More

  • Pew Awards Author Paul Greenberg the 2014 Fellowship in Marine Conservation

    • Press Release
    • Mar 12, 2014
    Paul Greenberg—an award-winning journalist and author of the New York Times bestseller, Four Fish: The Future of the Last Wild Food—has been awarded a 2014 Pew fellowship in marine conservation to prepare a book focusing on the human demand for Omega 3 fatty acids found in seafood and its impact on the sustainability of the world’s oceans.

    More

  • Pew le otorga al científico chileno Stefan Gelcich la beca de investigación 2014 en conservación de recursos marinos

    • Press Release
    • Mar 12, 2014
    Se ha reconocido al Dr. Stefan Gelcich, profesor adjunto de la Pontifica Universidad Católica de Chile con una beca de investigación Pew 2014 para la conservación de recursos marinos en un nuevo proyecto que examinará los incentivos sociales, económicos y ecológicos que permitan desarrollar zonas de protección, en conjunto con pescadores artesanales, a lo largo de la costa chilena. Este científico estudiará la integración de áreas marinas protegidas y pesquerías con derechos de uso territorial, como una estrategia para la conservación a largo plazo de los recursos oceánicos y su sostenibilidad.

    More

  • Pew Awards Shark Scientist Demian Chapman the 2014 Fellowship in Marine Conservation

    • Press Release
    • Mar 12, 2014
    Demian Chapman, Ph.D., a scientist with Stony Brook University’s School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, has been awarded a 2014 Pew fellowship in marine conservation for a new research project to determine how recently enacted international regulations affect the trade in the fins of protected shark species. Sharks have been heavily fished to supply the international fin trade, depriving marine ecosystems of some of their most important top predators and endangering species dependent on them.

    More

  • Pew Awards Scientist Hoyt Peckham the 2014 Fellowship in Marine Conservation

    • Press Release
    • Mar 12, 2014
    Hoyt Peckham, Ph.D., a pioneer of incentivizing artisanal fishing to advance marine stewardship based in La Paz, México, has been awarded a 2014 Pew fellowship in marine conservation to expand on his work on incentivizing sustainable fishing along the coast of Northwest Mexico to other communities in the region and around the world. Peckham is working with local fishers and their cooperatives to restore value in their fisheries, reinforcing their sustainability practices by increasing demand for their seafood.

    More

See more...

X
Sign In

Member Sign In

Forgot Password?
Submit Not a Member? Join!
X

Forgot Password?

Send Password Not a Member? Join!
X

Change Password

X
(All Fields are required)
Send Message
Share this on: